Rabu , 14 June 2017, 01:11 WIB

Political Agenda and Terrorism

Red: Agung Vazza
  Anggota Brimob melakukan simulasi penanganan terorisme di lapangan Polda Metro Jaya, Jakarta, Kamis (4/2). (Republika/Yasin Habibi)
Anggota Brimob melakukan simulasi penanganan terorisme di lapangan Polda Metro Jaya, Jakarta, Kamis (4/2). (Republika/Yasin Habibi)

By: Agung Virdianto *)

REPUBLIKA.CO.ID, The stronger the propaganda of deception by group of radical, which refused to be sentenced to a pair of "brides" with international terrorism that continue to aggressively deterensi the world. There are some who think the deterency security policy of the war era has no relevance to the phenomena of the ISIS struggle (in Syria and Iraq) using weapons instruments. Meanwhile, the political objective of ISIS's struggle is to establish a territory of authority based on Alquran and as-Sunnah or to bring back to the caliph. 

The resonance of an ideological coup with a geopolitically armed way has already penetrated the Asian region of Marawi, Philippines. In fact, there is no stopping of this point, various acts of terrorism continue to be radical adherents through its sleep cells in several target countries both in the West and even the largest Muslim-majority country such as Indonesia and Iran so that its political agenda is acceptable. For radical terrorists, the victory of Islamic political movements can be achieved when they stand and fight on pure Islamic thought. The question is whether there is a similarity of radical movement and global terrorism in the context of deterency and how far does the Indonesian government adjust the deterency policy to protect national security?

Globalization of Radicalism

Deterrence can formally be defined as the use of threat by a party to convince others to refrain from taking action (Huth, 1999, p.26). At an intuitive level, the logic of deterrence is quite simple, for example a bully solution in a school is to convince students that a particular school has a desire, strength and is prepared to take revenge if the student is disturbing the school. The essence of the idea is to prevent the opponent from attacking for fear of retaliation. The absorption theory of deterrence in international relations developed in the era of cold war or the era of Bipolar is a country's security policy in defining the threat of a country's military power, such as the US (democracy / liberal) in stemming the threat of communism (Russia / RRT) to maximize the power distribution of its military, as well The opposite. But the end of the Cold War era, the debate occurred in political scientists in photographing terrorism with a religious background in the use of deterrence.

Meanwhile, seeing the theoretical idea of deterrence is how to prevent opponents from attacking for fear of retaliation, would be important to take precautions or counter-action in the form of terror, because it provides a deterrent effect against the country that carried out military attacks against it or for countries that do not provide political support for ideological struggle.

In the development of deterency studies that initially focused on the nature and form of direct military threats have shifted to utilities on the use of smaller deterrence strategies or no longer zero-sum games of great power but asymmetric warfare and literacy impacting security dilemmas that can raise the state's concerns May be attacked unexpectedly as did the forces of terrorism. 

For some political scientists the threat of national security in the present-day perspective of deterency is deemed to be no longer suitable. Since this theory is only pseudo science and when applied to the threat of terrorism some basic elements of their approach seem defective eg, the impossibility of using a strategy that depends on risk calculation when its enemy regardless of the risks that are distributed through the power of terror. This has affected quite a lot of post-Cold War countries neglecting the adjustment of their national security policies, including the United States, which first experienced a new wave of deterencies, the attacks of September 11, 2001, including Indonesia experienced the Bali Bomb I and II attacks.

National Security Policy 

Quite a lot of definitions conveyed by political scientists related to the study of terrorism, which evolved in different times and political spheres, but in turn the keyword of terrorism is the use of violence against civilians and launched by non-state actors to obtain certain political results. 

Historical records have proven the occurrence of non-state actors sympathies and methods of terror in achieving political goals in the end they became rulers of political authority. American in the mid-19th century and early 20th century experienced a political movement called anarchism at that time is very popular in Europe and North America. The ideology demands the dissolution of all forms of government and accuses that all parliamentary and bureaucratic leaders are exploitative and unjust. They use acts of violence and terror as a clear example to impose their political agenda. 

Learning from a number of historical experiences, it is very appropriate steps to adjust the national security policy of Indonesia in looking at the future threats related issues radical ideology and method to achieve its political agenda. The starting point of the policy adaptation of a number of countries in deterrence for the adjustment of national security interests is reflected in Indonesia's participation in ratifying the International Convention for the Suppression of Financing of Terrorism, 1999 (International Convention on Combating Terrorism Financing, 1999). On that basis, Indonesia is obliged to create or harmonize the legislation related to terrorism financing in accordance with the provisions set forth in the Convention with the issuance of Law no. 9/2013 on the Prevention and Eradication of Criminal Acts of Terrorism Financing.

The spirit of the law invites all elements of society to take an active role to cooperate in combating the Crime of Terrorism which has the character of political purpose. The government's anticipation of the dynamics of the development of global terrorism and the incessant proganda of radical understanding, prompted the government to revise the Law on PTPT (Combating the Crime of Terrorism) in lieu of Law no. 15 of 2003, by incorporating several reform policies from various aspects of material criminal law and formal criminal law to prevent and counter terrorism physically and ideologically. 

But there are some people in Indonesia who still ignore the threat of terrorism that total copy paste contain radical import contents and mass-patterned organizations. Therefore, the Indonesia government's moment in dissolving and resisting the ideology of radically labeled mass organizations is very appropriate and needs to be supported by all parties by observing the development of adjustment in the context of national security policy. The obligation of the state is always present and not negligent in ensuring the safety of the citizens and their national interests above the interests of a handful of groups that impose their ideological.

The outward spirit which is constantly echoed by radical groups and political parties affiliated with its thinking including the method of terrorist movement unsupported by the political movement will inevitably have no significant effect. Therefore, the people of Indonesia must support the policy of deterrence that has been done by the government of Indonesia to fight the extremist movement in the name of religion and affiliation formation that try to control state. More widespread impact if it is allowed to drag on disturbing society with more massive acts of terror again, bringing grassroots conflict through the destruction of tradition, culture and religion of the archipelago that has been growing safely upholds the values of tolerance.

*) Graduate student and Community and Comparative Studies of Political Science.

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