Selasa 28 Nov 2023 16:24 WIB

Message from the Prophet Muhammad about the Conquest of Rome and Egypt

Prophet Muhammad knew that islam will be widely spread.

Rep: Andrian Saputra/ Red: Erdy Nasrul
Message of the Prophet of Allah About the Conquest of Rome and Egypt. Photo: Illustration of the Prophet
Foto: Republika/Mardiah
Message of the Prophet of Allah About the Conquest of Rome and Egypt. Photo: Illustration of the Prophet

REPUBLIKA.CO.ID, JAKARTA --The conquest of two great powers, Persia and Romans, by Muslim forces was a spectacular event. This came after the appointment of Umar ibn Khattab as Caliph. In 636 AD he took the bold policy of conquering the two great powers, the Persians in the East and the Romans in the West.

“Umar ibn Khattab mobilized 46,000 troops to confront 300,000 Byzantine (Roman) troops at Yarmuk. Although numerically unbalanced, the Muslim forces managed to win the war,” (Karimatul Amali in the book Two Jewels of Islam, Laksana 1, 2021, page 75).

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The Eastern Roman forces led by Theodore Sacellarius were defeated by Muslim forces outside Emesa. Then, the Muslim army met another Eastern Roman commander, Baanes, in the valley of the Yarmuk river. The two armies had a massive confrontation on August 20, 636. As a result, all of Syria was overrun by Muslims. Damascus was captured by the Muslims within a month, and Jerusalem fell not long after. Emperor Heraclius on hearing of this disaster, he left Antioch and concentrated his forces to defend Egypt.

Shortly after the victory at Yarmuk, Syria was made the base for the expansion plans of the conquest of Egypt with Amr bin Ash as its war leader. This expansion succeeded so that Egypt and parts of Persia came under Muslim rule. Sa'ad ibn Abi Waqqash ordered by Amirul Mukminin to conquer Persia succeeded with a resounding victory in the Qadisiyah war, resulting in a permanent loss of control of the Sassanid Kingdom in Western Persia. Not quite there, Amirul Mukminin ordered a full invasion of the Sassanid Empire and this was accomplished in 644.

In fact, the victory of the Muslim forces over the Romans and Persians has been mentioned long ago by the Prophet. Before his death, the Prophet (pbuh) informed the companions of the victory that the Muslim army would achieve by conquering Rome and Persia.

In a hadith narrated by Imam Bukhari it is mentioned regarding the destruction of the kingdom led by Kisra and the Emperor.

حَدَّثَنَا إِسْحَاقُ سَمِعَ جَرِيرًا عَنْ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ سَمُرَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِذَا هَلَكَ كِسْرَى فَلَا كِسْرَى بَعْدَهُ وَإِذَا هَلَكَ قَيْصَرُ فَلَا قَيْصَرَ بَعْدَهُ وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَتُنْفَقَنَّ كُنُوزُهُمَا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ

That is to say: He told us [Ishaq] that he heard Jarir of 'Abdul Malik of Jabir bin Samrah r.a saying; The Prophet (PBUH) said: “If Kisra (King of Persia) perishes, there will be no more Kisra after that and if Qaishar (King of the Romans) perishes, there will be no more Qaishar after that. And for the sake of Dzat, whose soul is in His hand, you will take away the wealth of the two (as ghanimah) in the way of Allah.” (MR. Bukhari)

Kisra was the name for the king of the Persian Empire, while Caesar was the name for the kings of the Roman Empire, the land of Sham and Al-Jazirah. Both of these designations were given by the Arabs. The conquest of the Persian Empire began during the caliphate with the leadership of Umar ibn Khattab. At this time, the territory of the Persian Empire began to be seized. Kisra's rule ended during the reign of Uthman ibn 'Affan in the year 32 Hijri. In this year, Kisra's rule ended along with his death.

Ibn Katsir in the book An Nihayah Fitan wa Ahwal Akhir Az Zaman explained that what the prophet Muhammad SAW hinted at as the hadith actually happened, exactly as the prophet reported. At the time of Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman the power of the Emperor, then named Heraclius, was eliminated from Sham and the entire Arabian peninsula. His power was then limited to the Romans alone.

“The Arabs used to call the emperor to anyone who became the ruler of the Romans following the Syam and the peninsula. This hadith is very encouraging news to the people of Shame that Roman power will not return to the land for ever until the Day of Resurrection. As for Kisra, most of its power was lost during the time of Umar ibn Khattab and was completely exhausted by the time of Uthman ibn Affan. There is also an opinion that says in 32 H.”

King Kisra also once tore up letters sent by the Messenger of Allah. At that time, the Prophet Muhammad also prayed that the Persian kingdom led by Kisra would crumble. It turns out that the prayer came true.

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