By: Kurniadi *)
REPUBLIKA.CO.ID, Indonesia consists of more than thousands ethnic with different customs and norms of life and different languages. The ethnic richness should be a force to unite the nation, but the reality actually increase the escalating conflict in the community. In the period between 1997-2004, occurred 3,600 times conflict with the number of victims at least 10,700 people not including the conflict in Aceh, Maluku and Papua.
Based on grouping the issues or patterns of social conflict in 2013, 2014 and 2015 (midquarter of January until April) including the following: In 2013 the total had occurred 92 events of the conflict, including clashes between residents totaled 37 cases, the issue of security of 16 cases, the tribe, custom, race and religion issue 9 cases, 2 cases of conflict of social inequality, conflicts in educational institutions 2 cases, conflict of civil organization 6 cases, 11 cases of land disputes and political excesses 9 cases.
While in 2014 the total number of 83 cases conflict with details of clashes between residents totaled 40 cases, 20 cases of security issues, racial issues one case, a conflict ofcivil organization 3 cases, 14 cases of land disputes, the excesses of political conflict in 4 cases. Last year 2015 (mid quarter of January until April) the total number of conflicts that occurred 26 cases, with details of clashes between residents were 8 cases, security issues 9 cases, conflict of civil organization 1 cases, land disputes 6 cases, and the last conflict because of excesses political amounted to 2 cases.
On the other hand, based on the sources of conflict (Law No. 7/2012) in 2013, 2014 and 2015 (mid quarter until April), recapitulation of the events of the social conflict in 2013 among the most dominant ideology, politics, economic, social and culture problems with the number of 71 cases, 8 cases of racial hostility, as well as natural resources land disputes13 cases. Whereas in 2014 the causes of conflict are sourced by ideology, politics, economic, social and culture totaled 68 cases, 1 case of racial enmity and dispute natural resources land disputes 14 cases. Last year in the mid-quarter 2015, social conflicts were sourced by ideology, politics, economic, social and culture totaled 20 cases, the feud SARA zero (no), as well as natural resources land disputes total 6 cases.
Post-reform movement of awakening, civil liberties that had been stuck transformed into excessive euphoria, because reform is not accompanied by remedial efforts in developing new patterns both in the economic, social and cultural. Besides the social cost and the human cost that is lost during the new order is not restored in the reform era, Indonesia result not only monetary crisis or an economic crisis, but followed by a social and cultural crisis. As a result, Indonesia experienced a deterioration of confidence, the growth of horizontal conflicts and lost the concept of nationalism and nationality.
As a result of its excessive euphoria, it has given rise to parties who want to maintain the old system, where they gained huge profits for himself and his group. Horizontal conflict that hit Indonesia indicated more influenced by the ruling political rather than ethnic or racial incompatibility between communities. In this regard, there are four (4) causes a source of conflict: First, differences in access to economic resources, regulating land, forests, minerals, and distribution markets, the banks, the opportunity came to power, unemployment, poverty and political protection.
Second, the setting expansion of the boundaries of culture such as language, housing, public symbols, public ceremonies, clothing, art, ethics and customs of the area. The politicization of ethnicity will always have a place because it could bring in money while grabbing public support.
Third, conflicts of ideology, politics and religion where religion comes in the form of ideology or politics, culture or ethnic group, or access to monopolize the economy. While political opposition emerged to reinforce the permanence of segregation or economic interests.
Fourth, irregularities such as anti-democratic statecraft, KKN (corruption, collusion, nepotism), injustice, control of the means of production by the elite, human rights violations, extra judicial actions, privilege (privilege, special treatment) for the elite, and impunity.
Conflict of interest is a conflict that occurs because of the perceived interests of competition or which obviously did not coincide. This conflict occurs because a party is convinced that to meet the needs of others must be sacrificed. Generally, this type of conflict is triggered by (1) the underlying issues such as money, physical resources and time, (2) issues ordinances, such as attitudes in response to a problem, (3) psychological problems, such as perception, trust, honor and justice. In terms of resources, there are also people who have interests in managing resources; even there are some who take advantage of the interest to private interests.
Indonesian society is very easy to be blasted and glassware, especially on issues of religion and ethnicity. In some cases it became very complicated conflict which resolutions tend to drag on for their ego drawn from interest groups, who benefit from conflict. Meanwhile, the flow of information in the media, often at the accusations became an increasingly widespread trigger a conflict, especially through the media that is too provocative in placing the headline as if to invite readers to engage further.
Indonesia is a plural society or culturally diverse, where communities and tribes united and governed by the national system, namely concept of nationality. Every race and ethnicity should be recognized as part of Indonesian culture which is a social force. People are less guidance in the disclosure of finding solutions together and analyzing provocation weak in external parties or special interest, due to the weak level of education and social welfare.
Some of the recommendations need to be considered are: First, it should be done early prevention of social conflict. Local Government, in an effort to be more responsive management of conflicts before they happen or has already happened. Governments in the region should pay more attention to the opportunities existing conflict areas and can map areas prone to conflict.
Second, conflict mapping can help illustrate graphically conflict that is useful to look at the overall conflict actors and relationships. In a conflict that became the main focus are the two parties acting as the lead actor opposite. Briefly, the main objectives of conflict mapping is to understand the situation better, to see the relationship between the various parties with clear, to explain where the power lies, and evaluating the actions that have been carried out each actor conflict.
Third, the system needs to be formulated ongoing supervision of the regions and communities, which are prone to conflict. So in the running of public life to prevent deviation and friction that lead to conflict.
*) Writer is senior researcher, alumnus of Padjajaran University, Bandung.